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Kemetic Yoga

Posted on July 23, 2012 at 3:50 PM


Yoga was practiced in Ancient Egypt, North East Africa, for a very long time. Research has indicated that the philosophy of personality integration, or yoga, was practiced in Egypt for about 10,000 years which is a great expanse of time.

The teaching of yoga that was espoused in the country of Egypt was derived from the meditations and insights by the early sage priests and priestesses. Egypt is not the original term for the country. Egypt is a modern term; the original inhabitants of the country called it Kemet, meaning black or the black land, because of the yearly inundation of the Nile River which caused the rich silt to overflow its banks.

So if yoga was practiced in Kemet for such a long period of time, then the question beckons, what is yoga? The term YOGA is not indigenous to Kemet either. Yoga is a term of Sanskrit origin, one of the languages of present day India. Yoga, when translated into English means to yoke or to bind. Then again, to yoke or to bind what, some may ask? Each human being has an individual consciousness and individual mind upon which they are perceiving the world. No two people think in exactly the same manner, no two people have identical ideas on things, which is a manifestation of individual reality.

However, there is universal consciousness that is beyond the scope of the normal realm of consciousness, or individual reality of people. Hence, the practice of yoga is a personality integration method that allows human beings to bind their individual transitory reality with the universal consciousness. The universal consciousness is stable and unchanging, unmoving, therefore, it is the substantial reality while human beings are existing in transitory phenomenon. When this process is accomplished one can say that they have experienced the way things really are or have experienced reality; universal consciousness.

Yoga is the practice of binding individual consciousness with universal consciousness. This individual reality that you are experiencing is actually only a small reflection of your true nature and yoga is the practice of how to achieve the knowledge of one's abiding and immortal aspect.

In the Kemetic teachings this process of yoga is called Smai Tawi which means UNION OF THE TWO LANDS, not to be confused with physical land masses, but is an explanation of the higher and lower nature within the human entity. The hieroglyphic inscription for Smai Tawi is Also, the term for union is Smai and is illustrated with a standard that represents the trachea and lungs .

Notice the similarity between union and yoke. In the Kemetic teachings, it shows how every human being is composed of a higher nature and a lower nature. The practice of Smai Tawi is to unite the lower with the higher; in effect, the same understanding comes through from the word yoga. Smai Tawi is illustrated in Divine iconography as:



The above depiction shows the Nile Divinity, Hapi, in dual form, binding the Sema symbol. The one on the left holds the symbol with a papyrus plant (lower self) and the one on the right binds with a lotus flower (higher self). This means that the duality of spirit and matter, temporal and transcendent becomes unified in such a way that one's temporal nature dissolves into the transcendent reality; one's higher nature.

Many people ask, is yoga a religion? The answer is no, yoga is not a religion in the common sense of the phrase. Yoga is a system of disciplines by which one can achieve the highest state of consciousness. However, religions in their mystical aspect, that is religions that foster the universality of God and teach that one can make union with the transcendent, have as their core, yoga disciplines. So yoga is inherent in mystical religion, but in and of itself is not a religion. But yoga can be practiced from a religious perspective as well. This is where all of the Egyptian Gods and Goddesses come in.

The Gods and Goddesses are the primary focus in the practice of Kemetic Yoga. The Kemetic term for Gods and Goddesses is NETERU. This term can be found in the extensive and extant philosophic and religious literature of the olden civilization.

The early sages knew that the untrained mind is very fickle and actually needs an anchor to stabilize it through the yogic process. So they created the spiritual symbols, gave them names and applied certain myths and rituals around each one to foster a greater understanding of the human experience. The Gods and Goddesses are not deities in the common sense of the word either, but are cosmic principles. Actually the term Neteru means COSMIC FORCE; Cosmic meaning: of or pertaining to the universe. They are spiritual implements that are designed to communicate certain insights and secrets to the mind. This allows the mind to grow in subtlety until one can experience this higher consciousness directly. This consciousness is called by many names by different cultures around the world. The most common among the English speaking nations would be, God. Yoga then, is the practice of how to unite oneself with God.

The Gods and Goddesses are the lesser divinities that are emanations from the Supreme All Powerful Transcendent Being that is outside the reach of normal human consciousness. This Transcendent power is known as NEBEDJER and is also called NETER. So the Neteru emerge from the Neter. This system of handling gods and goddesses can be seen in all indigenous African religions, such as the Dogon and Yoruba traditions. Therefore, the ancient Egyptian religion is a native African system of veneration. The lesser divinities are like training tools for the mind until it can develop the capacity to be transcended and you experience God as one's own innermost being.

Based upon this very brief introduction, the proper name for the Kemetic teachings of yoga would be KEMET SMAI TAWI. Meaning to unite oneself with the blackness of universal consciousness. It does not denote an actual physical color, but the state of undifferentiated consciousness. People who follow this discipline are called The Followers of Nebedjer (GOD). In the Medu Neter scriptures this is called

SHEMS N NEBEDJER. 'Followers of God'.

This term is found specifically in the Papyrus of Ani, what is commonly referred to as the Egyptian Book of the Dead. When it says to follow God, this should not be seen as to have a dogmatic view of the Ancient Egyptian religion and mystical training system. God is in reference to any of the Divinities of the Kemetic pantheon and should not be viewed as a personal God who exists outside of oneself. The teaching is saying to revere the sustainer of the three worlds, the physical, astral and causal planes respectively. Hence the understanding is to gain insight into the nature of objectified phenomenon so as to understand the ultimate cause of things. Thus the term God is in reference to the innermost reality of the entire universe, which is also the essence of ones own existence. Also, the term Nebedjer is being translated to God but Nebedjer implies The All Encompassing Divinity, that which is beyond name and form. Thus Nebedjer is the Shetaut Aru, free of form, hidden of form, or formless. The term Nebedjer is an inference to that which transcends consciousness.

From a broader philosophical perspective Kemetic Yoga is a sophisticated system of personality integration. The human person is composed of four major aspects; that is the will, emotions, intellect, and actions. The will is harmonized by the practice of meditation, emotions are harmonized by the practice of devotional service, intellect is harmonized by the practice of wisdom and the actions are harmonized by the practice Maat (acting with righteousness). When all of these are blended then a well integrated personality emerges from the contracted condition it once existed as. This four fold process can also be found in Hinduism and Buddhism as well as Taoism. Thus it can be readily seen that the Ancient Egyptian civilization gave to the world the practice of what is commonly referred to as Yoga. However, among all of the mystic traditions there is no contradiction because the essential message and trainings are the same. Although the outward manifestation of the practice and techniques may differ and vary from system to system, they are all leading the human person to the state of enlightenment.

Kemetic Yoga is unique because it is the indigenous system that was developed in Africa. For example we can speak of Tibetan Buddhism because it is a form of the Buddhist teaching unique to the country of Tibet. Likewise, we can mention Nubian Yoga because what we term Kemetic Yoga or African Yoga was developed in Nubia, an olden civilization on the continent of Africa which lies south of Kemet, modern day Egypt. What started in Nubia spread to Egypt and the rest of the continent also spread throughout parts of Europe with the earliest European adherents being Greek and Roman.

Therefore, the African system of personality integration is among the family of legitimate spiritual traditions and as such can be practiced by anyone regardless of race or ethnicity as it was in ancient times. For example, there are many westerners who have taken on the practice of Tibetan Buddhism with welcomed arms from its religious leaders. This is so because the greater understanding is that essentially all human beings are the same and are in search of the same happiness. Since the Kemetic teachings are among the legitimate mystic traditions of the world, and its goals are essentially the same as the others, it can be adopted by anyone as it was adopted by Greeks and later Romans during the Ptolemaic Period (approx. 304BCE-30CE) of Egyptian Civilization. However, it is best to pursue spirituality from ones own culture because of the karmic link associated with religion.

The teachings of Kemetic Yoga have a cultural aspect as well and as such the early European converts did not try to dismantle the African culture but adopted it without trying to change it. The change came later with the Orthodox Dogmatic Christian movement of Rome whose emperors actively shut down the temples, not unlike the situation in Tibet today under Chinese occupation. The most aggressive of the Roman Emperors in shutting down the Kemetic temples was Justinian who closed the Temple of Aset around 550AD, effectively driving the Kemetic teachings underground. and disbanding the religion that had existed for about 10,000 years.


The remains of the Temple of Heru in Edfu, visited by thousands of tourists each year.


Thus over the centuries during the Orthodox Christian occupation, and also during the period of the Trans Atlantic and Arabian Slave Trades, many of the African priests and priestesses were executed or made into slaves and the Native Egyptian Religion suppressed and routed out. Those hierophants who were not killed were forced to adopt the religion of their captors, either some form of Orthodox Christianity or Islam. The country was taken over by successive forces until the Arabs gained the upper hand in 1922 over Britain and this is why Egypt is an Islamic country today, populated by Arabs who make up the great majority of the 76 million people who live there. Thus the original religion is not being practiced in its original homeland and its native peoples have been driven out. Most who still live there have little recollection of their native religion and are marginalized in their own ancient homeland. This is the same situation here in the West where the majority of people of African descent have lost or suppressed memory of their original religion. The temples and religious places are used to drive the thriving Egyptian tourist industry where about 7.8 million people visit each year causing irreparable damage to the ancient holy monuments. The true meaning and intent of the native spiritual teachings from Egypt were lost for a very long time. This is the danger that the Tibetan Civilization is in at this moment.

The challenge we face today, which is being addressed, not only by the Kemetic Yoga Association alone, is to transmit the teachings of the ancient sages of Africa skillfully and rightly, so that the teachings can be practiced correctly, with proper understanding. Thus Kemetic Yoga is a vast ocean of wisdom that was originally created to lead human beings to a realization that goes beyond the material expression of matter. What is meant by this is that the teachings are to lead a human person to a state of awakening that is referred to as the Tao in Taoism, but in the Kemetic teachings is called Nehast. The word literally means to awaken, thus the implication being to awaken to ones true nature, pure Divinity, beyond objectification. This idea is also expressed as Nibbana in the Buddhist tradition which implies to become free from the afflictions of generated phenomenon. This generation may be internal such as afflictive emotions and thoughts or outward such as stressful conditions in life.

In the Kemetic teachings to be free from generated phenomenon is referred to as ‘knowing real from unreal’. Thus the great implication of this is that Kemetic Yoga is a teaching that allows one to experience reality and enables one to discern what is actual from what is illusion. In Hinduism, this is called Liberation; that is, to become free from matter, and in essence implies the boundary where objectification ends and pure spirit begins; in other words to trespass the boundary of generated form into the realm of the Absolute. However, no such boundary actually exists as the world is a manifestation of the same spirit that is essentially formless. Therefore, what we experience every day of our lives is a continuum of spirit in its many manifestations. The teachings of Atonism explain this clearly; there is only one essence in existence. Therefore, the meditative ritual allows the practitioner to experience the end of the pole that is spirit. This idea is clearly shown in the teachings related to Lord Djehuty from the city of Khemenu, which is referred to as the Kybalion (See the book The Cosmic Mind for detailed discourse).

However, for the mind it is necessary to explain things in concrete form rather than abstract for understanding, until the mind becomes purified to ingratiate a more subtle teaching. That is to say, to experience spirit the mind must become purified.

This experience allows the human person to become transformed in a substantial way and hence exist in a state or condition of enlightenment. The highest state of health is knowing oneself as the Divine. However this knowing is not through intellectualization, but transcends cosmic intellect itself.

Therefore, Kemetic Yoga is a process of mysticism. Anyone who aspires to God Realization through serious study and reflection, or who has achieved union with the Divine is called a mystic. Therefore, Mysticism is the study and practice of attaining God Realization. A mystic is one who undergoes the process of gaining experiential understanding of the teachings. This means that a certain aspect can be learned through books, DVD’s and lectures, however, the highest form of the teaching is what you gain from experiencing Nebedjer as one's own self. It is an experience that goes beyond body and mind awareness, it transcends cognition and therefore is outside the realms of the powerful but finite mind. To effectuate the process the mind must be made pure through the successful integration of the personality.

Therefore, Kemetic Yoga has far reaching implications and the adoption of it as a spiritual program , under proper guidance, is a magnanimous undertaking that can yield Nehast in this very lifetime.

The Egyptian Book of the Dead


Generally, the Ancient Egyptian writings are commonly referred and demarcated as the Pyramid Text, the Coffin Text, the Papyrus Text , and the Am Duat Text based on the media in which they were written on. However this demarcation is not conclusive because there can be papyrus scriptures written on chapel walls and Am Duat Text written on papyrus paper. Therefore, the common delineation of the Medu Neter must be revised to reflect the specific genre of the text being referenced and not so much based on the media in which they were written on. Therefore, an overall genre specific categorization is more appropriate. In as such a certain genre may be predominantly written on a certain media, however, the media itself should not be the final determiner of how the text should be categorized and delineated.


The Medu Neter that are commonly referred to as the Pyramid, Coffin and Papyrus Text respectively were not written in a purely philosophical manner which adds to its mystery, philosophical complexity, and misunderstanding among the academic, Egyptological and metaphysical circles. Thus the Egyptian writings, those that are commonly referred to as the Pyramid Text, the Coffin Text and the Papyrus Text do not parallel western philosophical thought in a strict manner. In contrast the writings of the Sages of Asia such as Kamileshila, Patanjali, Kung Fu Tzu, and Naropa can be translated directly into their English equivalent which reveals a close synchronicity with Asian and Western Philosophy. While the Ancient Egyptian Medu Neter can be defined as a pictographic language, much of its philosophical premises must be extrapolated from the symbolic inferences of its script. The philosophical premise of the Medu Neter is there shrouded in symbolism and mystery, however it can be discerned through careful study and legitimate religious experience while the Asian writers used more of an alphabetical script. Thus the Asian philosophical premises can be readily discerned from a direct translation of its terms to its Western equivalents or approximations. From the Asian perspective this is through an intellectual development of the understanding of the nature of the human mind. However, for complete understanding of the Asian mysteries, spiritual practice is essential for their practitioners as well. The point being that the Medu Neter is written in such a way that a strictly didactic approach to understanding its spiritual messages is perhaps a mistake that may lead to misunderstanding.


Therefore, from the surface level it may appear that the Medu Neter is lacking in philosophy of the human psycho-spiritual experience. Rather, the Medu Neter is rich in psycho-spiritual insight. This cannot be substantiated by scholars, only by sages and saints. For most professionals who study the Kemetic writings it is approached from a surface level. The Egyptologist and academic societies approach it from a historical perspective while the metaphysical societies approach it from subtle energetic and scientific perspective. Among the two groups there is disagreement with the relative age of Ancient Egyptian Culture. The metaphysical group views Ancient Egyptian culture as much older than the academic and Egyptological sides. However, both in their interpretation of the spiritual aspect of the culture do not do so from a mystical perspective and as such there is much confusion among them about the true practices and disciplines that were enjoined by the sages, priests, priestesses , saints, recluses, renunciates and common people of the olden civilization. Much of this confusion is born from a misunderstanding of the Medu Neter along with other societal challenges such as an inability to view the Kemetic civilization as inherently African with its own African philosophy. This African philosophy should be viewed in the same manner as Japanese Taoist Philosophy or Tibetan Buddhist Scholarship; the Kemetic writings therefore are among them and their qualified and legitimate spiritual leaders would acknowledge such as it is our religious duty to acknowledge and venerate the other spiritual traditions of humanity. Through this approach of acknowledgment and religious reverence for other traditions there can be fuller and deeper understanding of the teachings. This is necessary as we live in a world where strict lines of culture and race are swiftly disappearing as humanity is slowly awakening to the reality that there is only one family, the human family. As sage Akhunaton said, “However many there are, you made them all to live.” This means that every philosophical teaching from every culture comes from Aton (the un-manifest, The Divine).


The Ra Nu Pert em Heru script is primarily metaphoric while its “sentences” are actually formulas that need to be deciphered carefully for the philosophical ideas to be exuded. Thus the script itself is layered with copious philosophical insight into the nature of the human experience, the Kemetic pathway to enlightenment, the inner mysteries of the mind and insight into subtle and gross levels of mental energies. Therefore, it is primarily concerned with the intermediary states of consciousness, moral ethic development of the human entity and realization of God Consciousness. However, in contrast, the Great Hymn to Aton by Sage Akhunaton does not reference the Duat nor approaches the philosophical ideas of death and its processes or consequences much like the Hymn to Hapi. However, the Harper’s Song directly addresses the issue of the impermanence of life and the consequences that are experienced by a life lived in enlightenment or ignorance. Both the Harper’s Song and the Great Hymn to Aton cannot be categorized as either Pyramid, Coffin or Papyrus Text, thus this very small example demonstrates the vast sophistication, flexibility and subtle nuances of the Ancient Egyptian collection of spiritual writings.




The Egyptian Book of the Dead gives great insight into the subtle realms of consciousness. In Kemetic philosophy the subtle planes of consciousness are called fields, towns or dwelling places. These areas are varied, highly sophisticated and much involved; therefore, this writing will concern itself with an introductory level discourse in the less phenomenal planes of being that are explicated in the Rau Nu Per em Heru, which is part 4 of this series.


If a human being can understand that the objectified phenomenon that appears in your life, that is phenomena on the physical plane and phenomena on the mental plane have a basis upon which they are born, then one may gain insight into substantial reality, the purpose of Kemetic Yoga. The physical plane is where the conscious state of consciousness becomes activated while the mental plane is the area of the dream world and meditation world planes. Thus, objectified phenomena and the experiences that you have in relation to that objectivity in relation to form beings, moods, feelings and images are not autonomous in their nature but rather, are promulgated from an efficient cause. The result of that presumed efficiency allows a multiple of results to occur and thus terminate in an experience in day to day life, dream or meditation. These experiences can be in relation to form beings or your own mental thoughts and subsequent reaction to your mental creations. Thus if you can understand the nature of cause and effect or Ari then the human being will not be so confused or confounded by ones daily encounters with other beings such as people or animals nor be confounded by one’s own thoughts. So if you can understand that what is happening in your life is based on your own past actions and that from the purview of mystical philosophy there is no such theory of randomness or chance, then you can diffuse the anxiety that arises due to lack of wisdom. This negation of randomness and chance presupposes that the human entity is the primary creator of his or her life and experiences. These experiences can be of a joyous nature or may arise as periods of suffering and dissatisfaction.


In the teachings of mystical philosophy it is understood that every incident that occurs in time and space is created by causes and conditions and your actions allow those causes and conditions to arise. Upon generation of a cause a result will ensue. Thus the result is not the karma, but rather the karma, act, is what created the mechanism by which the result manifests. Therefore it is important for one on the spiritual path to gain comprehensive insight into the modes of action. The word Ari means action (karma) or generation of form (results of karma as in the creation of the universe). Ariu refers to the sum total of all karmic actions. So your Ari, every action that you perform is going to create some result, either in the form of a being, an entity or a situation that you encounter that will project unto you some form of pleasure or pain that an unenlightened consciousness indulges in. So therefore the human person should try to understand the power of your actions and how to train them correctly to yield the results necessary to build a life of enlightenment.


There are certain experiences that are necessary to gain insight into reality. The most substantial of these is to become immersed in the formless absolute, what is termed, the Anrutef, or the place where there is an absence of generation. As was stated earlier, the states of consciousness antecedent to the Arutef, have been delineated in the olden writings such as the Papyrus of Sesh (scribe) Ani.


Thus it can be posited that since the Anrutef is understood cognitively as absolute nothing, form therefore is illusion, is not absolutely real, from the side of transcendental consciousness. By illusion it means that forms do not appear as their true nature. The form is present to the senses and so has validity, however, that validity is faulty by the illusionary nature of the form. Thus something is there, but not in its absolute nature. The practice of the deeper mysteries of Kemetic Yoga assists the practitioner in penetrating the reality behind the gross manifestations of objectified phenomenon.


Thus, antecedent to the Anrutef are the lower realms, however all of these realms are in what is referred to as the Duat, they are in the underworld so they are in your mind environment, as has been alluded to by the scriptures. Although they are being explained as realms of higher and lower, they are actually experienced as states of consciousness by adept meditators and not necessarily that one precedes the other. But for the purpose of understanding they must be described as realms in relation to a hierarchy.


Thus the Egyptian Book of the Dead is a spiritual treatise on Kemetic Yoga.



Peace and Blessings,


Sehu Khepera Ankh



Promised Land Tennessee

Posted on July 22, 2012 at 10:00 AM



First settled by freedmen during Reconstruction, the community of Promise Land, north of Charlotte in Dickson County, sheltered its residents from the Jim Crow South, offering them protection from the strife and bigotry surrounding them. At Promise Land, freedmen were the only residents, creating a world they could control.


Ancestors of the founders of Promise Land were brought to Dickson County early in the county’s settlement as slave laborers for farms and for the iron works at Cumberland Furnace, a major antebellum iron operation. Ironmaster Montgomery Bell, who began his operations in 1804, became one of the South’s major users of industrial slavery. In 1825, Bell sold his property to Anthony Vanleer, who continued to operate the iron plantation, heavily dependent on slave labor, through the initial years of the Civil War. With Emancipation, African Americans in Dickson County left in droves, many finding new opportunities in urban areas such as Nashville. The founders of Promise Land, however, chose to stay. They chose Promise Land’s location because it was available and affordable, certainly, but the village was also central to the neighboring mostly white communities where they could work. The earlier history and persistence of industrial work in Dickson County meant that African Americans there had different opportunities than in most of the South.


Soon after the end of the war, around 1870, the Bowen, Redden, and Vanleer African American families purchased one thousand acres in the vicinity of Promise Land. When Arch and John Nesbitt left the nearby community of Vanleer in 1880 or 1881, they used their war pensions to purchase a plot of land less than one mile away from these initial purchases. Though the origin of the community’s name is unknown, one possibility is that the families had finally claimed the land the federal government had promised them; another is that the location was viewed as one of more promise than the initial settlement around 1870.


In 1881, what had been a hamlet of families began to organize as a community when the Nesbitt brothers donated land for a church and school, forming Promise Land’s new heart. By 1900, the families had founded a Baptist church, a Methodist church, and an African Methodist Episcopal congregation; the Baptists and AMEs shared their worship space, so there were only two church buildings. Sandwiched between the two (only the Methodist church survives) was Promise Land School, with the front section of this historic building dating to 1899. In addition to the community buildings of the school and two churches, Promise Land contained several stores, creating a largely self-contained community.


The three churches of Promise Land were important community institutions. Members often visited the other congregations, particularly on special occasions. During Promise Land’s heyday, the most popular events were the all-night singings organized by Theo Edmondson, father of Bernice Herd and Helen Hughes. Though the concerts attracted outsiders of both races, none of the Promise Land residents recalled any racial hostility during the performances. In fact, Hughes recalled two white men who came because they had befriended her father and enjoyed singing with him. Because the whites came to the blacks, there was no segregation those nights. So many audience members enjoyed hearing Herd and other girls her age sing “Touch Me, Lord Jesus” that Edmondson formed the Promise Land Singers, which toured Middle Tennessee and even had a regular slot on WVOL Radio in Nashville.


Parents in Promise Land stressed education, and records show that this emphasis began as soon as the community began around 1880 and led to the school’s construction and expansion over the years. The highest enrollment at the school occurred at the turn of the twentieth century, and numbers peaked in 1905 at ninety-three students. During these crowded years, the two-room building was too small to house all the pupils, so the children divided by grade and age. Sometimes the younger children remained in the school while the older students went to Mt. Olive Baptist Church for their lessons; other semesters, one group came to classes in the morning while the others came after lunch.


A major improvement to school services came around 1935, when the Works Progress Administration (WPA) worked with the local board of education and the African American community to add a cafeteria and kitchen wing.


As was true across the South, residents of Promise Land began leaving the area during the Great Migration of the 1910s, and the flow continued throughout the coming six decades, draining the village of its population. As families moved and school enrollment dwindled, at some points during the 1940s and 1950s fewer than thirty students enrolled in classes. Beginning in 1956, the seventh and eighth graders from Promise Land went to Dickson for classes, and in the spring of 1957 the county board of education closed the community’s school, consolidating the Promise Land School with Cedar Grove Elementary in Charlotte. Even after the end of classes, the building remained a center of community life. During the annual homecomings hosted by the different churches, the congregations served meals in the structure. Over time, residents remade the building into a community center, which it still is today.


The annual homecoming tradition continues as the Promise Land Community Festival occurs the first weekend of June each year and draws visitors from around the nation and even the world as some descendents have taken jobs in both Germany and Japan. Through these occasions, many of the residents who had moved away from the village have begun to reinvest in its life, some by coming back for the annual visits and others by restoring their families’ properties in preparation of a return. Thus, after several decades of neglect, the community has been revitalized by becoming the locus from which networks of kinship spread.

To My Old Master

Posted on January 31, 2012 at 5:05 PM



In August of 1865, a Colonel P.H. Anderson of Big Spring, Tennessee, wrote to his former slave, Jourdan Anderson, and requested that he come back to work on his farm. Jourdan — who, since being emancipated, had moved to Ohio, found paid work, and was now supporting his family — responded spectacularly by way of the letter seen below (a letter which, according to newspapers at the time, he dictated).

Rather than quote the numerous highlights in this letter, I'll simply leave you to enjoy it. Do make sure you read to the end.

(Source: The Freedmen's Book; Image: A group of escaped slaves in Virginia in 1862, courtesy of the Library of Congress.)

Dayton, Ohio,

August 7, 1865

To My Old Master, Colonel P.H. Anderson, Big Spring, Tennessee

Sir: I got your letter, and was glad to find that you had not forgotten Jourdon, and that you wanted me to come back and live with you again, promising to do better for me than anybody else can. I have often felt uneasy about you. I thought the Yankees would have hung you long before this, for harboring Rebs they found at your house. I suppose they never heard about your going to Colonel Martin's to kill the Union soldier that was left by his company in their stable. Although you shot at me twice before I left you, I did not want to hear of your being hurt, and am glad you are still living. It would do me good to go back to the dear old home again, and see Miss Mary and Miss Martha and Allen, Esther, Green, and Lee. Give my love to them all, and tell them I hope we will meet in the better world, if not in this. I would have gone back to see you all when I was working in the Nashville Hospital, but one of the neighbors told me that Henry intended to shoot me if he ever got a chance.

I want to know particularly what the good chance is you propose to give me. I am doing tolerably well here. I get twenty-five dollars a month, with victuals and clothing; have a comfortable home for Mandy,—the folks call her Mrs. Anderson,—and the children—Milly, Jane, and Grundy—go to school and are learning well. The teacher says Grundy has a head for a preacher. They go to Sunday school, and Mandy and me attend church regularly. We are kindly treated. Sometimes we overhear others saying, "Them colored people were slaves" down in Tennessee. The children feel hurt when they hear such remarks; but I tell them it was no disgrace in Tennessee to belong to Colonel Anderson. Many darkeys would have been proud, as I used to be, to call you master. Now if you will write and say what wages you will give me, I will be better able to decide whether it would be to my advantage to move back again.

As to my freedom, which you say I can have, there is nothing to be gained on that score, as I got my free papers in 1864 from the Provost-Marshal-General of the Department of Nashville. Mandy says she would be afraid to go back without some proof that you were disposed to treat us justly and kindly; and we have concluded to test your sincerity by asking you to send us our wages for the time we served you. This will make us forget and forgive old scores, and rely on your justice and friendship in the future. I served you faithfully for thirty-two years, and Mandy twenty years. At twenty-five dollars a month for me, and two dollars a week for Mandy, our earnings would amount to eleven thousand six hundred and eighty dollars. Add to this the interest for the time our wages have been kept back, and deduct what you paid for our clothing, and three doctor's visits to me, and pulling a tooth for Mandy, and the balance will show what we are in justice entitled to. Please send the money by Adams's Express, in care of V. Winters, Esq., Dayton, Ohio. If you fail to pay us for faithful labors in the past, we can have little faith in your promises in the future. We trust the good Maker has opened your eyes to the wrongs which you and your fathers have done to me and my fathers, in making us toil for you for generations without recompense. Here I draw my wages every Saturday night; but in Tennessee there was never any pay-day for the negroes any more than for the horses and cows. Surely there will be a day of reckoning for those who defraud the laborer of his hire.

In answering this letter, please state if there would be any safety for my Milly and Jane, who are now grown up, and both good-looking girls. You know how it was with poor Matilda and Catherine. I would rather stay here and starve—and die, if it come to that—than have my girls brought to shame by the violence and wickedness of their young masters. You will also please state if there has been any schools opened for the colored children in your neighborhood. The great desire of my life now is to give my children an education, and have them form virtuous habits.

Say howdy to George Carter, and thank him for taking the pistol from you when you were shooting at me.

From your old servant,

Jourdon Anderson.


Dagara Cosmological Wheel

Posted on January 20, 2012 at 6:25 PM



Excerpt of the beginning of a weekend workshop at the School of Wisdom


We want to begin with a little prayer, something that will express our intent to bring the spirits into this place, so that what we do can be for the greatest good, but also so that they can show us how to reach the greatest good. Maybe those of you who can stand up will do that. Here is how we're going to do it. We're going to make some invocation prayers in Dagara, so don't worry if you don't understand what's going on. Take it deep down into your bones where language is naturally understood. We will pray to the spirit of the land here, the spirit of the trees, the waters, the fires, and so on and so forth. After that, we're going to ask that any person who's got a good spirit, a good connection with some power source, and the other side of this reality whom you think can be of great use to the beauty we want to produce by being together here for the next couple of days, you can call that spirit name and invite that spirit to come and be with us throughout this time we're going to spend together.


Let's breathe in together and that will ground the energy.


At this point, it is time to bring in some good spirit allies in the interests of making our being together a very healing experience and a very peaceful experience with one another. Do that one at a time, so that we can hear who you are inviting.



We use the African Wheel shown here as a kind of model, a model to create this whole thing we call Ritual and Sacred Space, whatever it is. In the villages in Africa, life is essentially built around a lot of ritual doing. You don't do rituals because you don't have something else to do. You do them because you have a lot of things to do, and because you want to do those lot of things very well. So life is seen as a mechanism that is supported by all kinds of ritual. This is why such a large portion of people's lives is invested in either recovering from ritual, doing ritual or thinking about ritual.


What we're going to do in the next couple of days is basically going to be something like the creation of a village. There are probably not too many people in the village, but that's where it starts--the creation of a village. Inside of that village, we're going to try to build a kind of energy that normally sustains a village. You see, everywhere we go they talk about "community", people coming together as a village or other community; they talk about tribe and things like that. We're not going to talk about it. We're going to try to see if we can do it. It may not work, but if it doesn't work then we can sit together and talk about why it didn't work. At least trying is something practical.


The best context in which to try it is what we refer to as the Ritual and eventually the creation of Sacred Space. That means being able to at least bring that part of the Self that is supposed to be all-knowing, that knows everything, so that it can show us new ways of being with one another, that if it is deep enough will make us not want to quit, not want to leave and go back to the "normal", because this is the normal. Everything else we've been doing before now was abnormal. It took the space of normal.


This is what the content of the weekend, this couple of days is going to be. It's great! We're not going to spend it inside of these walls. That's beautiful! So just know that we want to use the four walls to make sure you get in and out of these papers. That way when we meet tomorrow, it's going to be under a new sky or a new air, and we'll take it from there.


The formation of any village, at least that we know of, is always based on some kind of cosmology, cosmologies that help people find out where they came from and where they're going. This is all based on the quest for people's identity, because without it it's very hard to live a life that is focused and motivated. What you have here is a Dagara model of building identity, or building community and creating a viable relationship with the spirit world.


That's why people in the tribes or in villages are divided into these five different categories, which are based on the understanding that the universe is made of five essential elements. Those elements are intertwined in such a way that it makes it possible for people like us to live in it. Our daily challenges are based on how we dance with these elements. Pain is the result of ignoring one or several of them, and the feeling of groundedness and focus is more connected to a balancing or a proximity to balancing these elements all together. But the most important thing in it is the possibilities or the availabilities in this so-called Wheel of giving us some very substantial knowledge about ourselves. When you know who you are you know how to dance, and then everything else perhaps becomes not as threatening as it looks.


We are finding out what your essence is, the kind of place from which you are contributing to this world. Then you need the other four elements in order to help you do that. That is also important to know. These elements in their order start with Fire, and then go as Water, and then move on to Earth, then to Mineral, and then Nature.


Fire is always associated with the dream world. It is an energy that is ancestral. That is the first in its order. We call it the primal energy. It is associated also with the emotional self, the intuitive self, the dream self, the instinct. Anything as impalpable as that is basically connected with Fire. They say that Fire is something that comes to us from below us where the Ancestors are. The Ancestors are beneath us sending their Fire onto us so that we can pass it on to one another. That's why you have people who are called Fire people, not because they go around burning other people off but because they have played that role of being the link between the Other world and this world as if they are walking on a thin line between the Ancestors' world and this world.


Water is the second element, and Water is essentially about reconciling. It's about peacemaking and making bridges--between two cultures for instance, or between two people. It's also about bringing your wisdom out. It is also about focusing somebody so that they can see beyond their turmoil. So anytime you experience the hot Fire, you need Water in order to bring the balance back to yourself.


Therefore you understand what Water people are supposed to do. The task of the Water people is indeed to do the impossible task of reconciling--reconciling people or reconciling things, bringing peace all over the place--and this is why a lot of them are into the teaching job. That is one of the most accessible ways of being a Water, or living your Water energy. You can understand it within the context of modernity, in terms of the fact that when you are not connected--Fire is connection with the Other world--then the Fire you have in you becomes a combustion chamber.


It becomes active in a way that is consuming. The consuming fire inside of you turns you into a consumer, too. Do you see the link? So what happens is that in this context you are in need of a great deal of reconciliation. Maybe this is a time when you need to call the fire department to "hose you down" or something.


Have you noticed that the fire department has nothing to do with fire? It has a lot of water. It's about Water, but they're called "fire". The need for reconciliation is much more pronounced in the modern world or in modern reality than anywhere else. Modern means that which is in Fire, that which is constantly burning. This is probably why they have a fire department. In a context like this you can see that everything gets easily measured in terms of "fire". For instance fire power--that's the unit where you measure the powers. The ultimate power is fire, the one that blows everything up, that pulverizes everything else. In a context like that there is also a fascination for speed. The faster you go--maybe because you think that you're going to run away from the Fire that is burning you? Who knows? The point is that it's stressed as the important of these two elements, fire/water, that are very important. So the Fire people are there perhaps to make people become aware of the fact that everybody needs this connection with the Ancestors, this connection with Spirit, this connection with the Otherworld in order to slow down and to stop measuring everything in terms of fire. In order to do that they have to have a lot of water around them. You're lucky here. (The School of Wisdom was located in Florida at the time.) There's water all over the place, so you should all be cool. It should be pretty quiet and quite reconciled. If not, go take a swim. It's great to be in a place where there's a lot of water, because at least it offers a great potential for all kinds of reconciliation ritual that could occur. I hope that there's going to be enough Water for us to reconcile a few things.


Then we have Earth as the third element. Earth is about nurturing, grounding, taking care of one another and unconditional love. It is also about empowerment, providing a sense of home and identity.



The next element is Mineral. Mineral is about communicating, the ability to translate things, the ability to converse. It has a lot to do with social connections. A lot of Mineral people are relatively talkative. In the indigenous world they are the Storytellers, the Great Communicators. Mineral is also something that we must see in terms of the conveying of energy, to convey energy that comes through you on its way somewhere else. This is why any person who is a Mineral person is supposed to be running energy, whether it is through your hands or your body or whatever. Mineral people are also recognized as Stone people--not that they're stone but because the stone is seen as the one that stores information. They say if you want to know the story of the earth, listen to the stones or listen to the rocks. Every time you go to someone's house and you see all these rocks, that person has something to do with mineral. This is the closest way to express that. It is interesting that in many communities in Africa, your birth certificate is a stone. Of course the stone does not record the date of birth. It records why you were born. Maybe that's why we don't bother with people's birthdays. The reason I'm bringing it out is because in the computer systems they use stones. They crystallize stone to the point where it can forward or manipulate or store information. This is to say that it's not all that disconnected from modern facts and reality.


The last element is Nature. It is about magic. It is about major changes--life, death, rebirth. It is about dropping the masks and coming to your true self. It is about the Coyote energy, the Trickster, the Joker. It is also about joy and laughter.


That is the overall picture of what this is about. Here's a scenario, because this is not just some kind of intellectual thing that you need to store up somewhere and then continue on. The point is that this is the Ritual model--a model for doing ritual and for living a life that is informed so that eventually you understand that you can use this to understand people's patterns of behavior, why people are drawn towards certain things or are not, why certain people get excited about something that other people just stay cold in front of. If you want to look at it that way then you're moving closer and closer towards something practical that you can extract from this circle. It's not something that you are supposed to understand in your head. By the way, if you manage to understand it in your head something is wrong. There is always going to be a question mark somewhere that cannot be answered anywhere else other than in the heart and in the soul. So what I'm trying to say is that the Ritual implication of this must be looked at from this point of view.


Let's start with the Fire. If fire is the symbol of connection with the Ancestors, and if a lack of connection with the Ancestors puts us in a state of fire--that is to say, puts us in combustion--and the result or experience is maybe this constant feeling of disconnectedness, or the need or the longing for something intimate with the Great Beyond. It means therefore that on the surface we can talk about the fact that yes, we are either lacking in Fire or we are not honoring the dynamic of the Fire, and it means therefore we will need to return to this kind of connection. I always believe that any person who wakes up to Spirit is a person who is Fire. That is to say there is this tremendous longing and fascination for the Other world. I would say indeed that in a lot of ways if you are an alien visiting this world, and you see what happens on freeways and planes, people constantly going somewhere, then you will realize that basically something will make you say that maybe these people are running after some kind of deep connection or running around looking for connection.


In the same way you move to the Water, and you realize that yes, when you are disconnected from the ancestors what happens is that you become a person who is seriously in need for some kind of reconciliation or for some kind of peace within. When that peace is not obtained because of this state of disconnectedness from the ancestors, which emphasizes the Fire, the tendency is that the person who is disconnected goes out there to pollute the very thing that could have brought reconciliation or peace. Why is it that pollution begun with the scientific era and the era of industrialism and so forth? I guess far from explaining it in a purely scientific manner you can see a psychic level as a direct result of disconnection, where the gods have been taken out of the earth and from the water and put into a machine.


Now you move from there into the Earth, and you find that if this is the case then we all at a certain level are experiencing homelessness. A person who is hearing the voice of the Spirit, that person's longing for Spirit is also a longing for Home. This is when the Earth as an element becomes something that is highly wanted. Sometimes I look at the whole invention of real estate and mortgage and rentals as an exploitation of an intrinsic presence in people and the culture of a state of homelessness. Everywhere else, as far as I know, the more ancient the culture is the less you will hear about mortgage and rent and so forth. Somebody must be feeling homeless, and therefore somebody who knows about it created a whole system whereby you can market on this state of homelessness. Maybe I'm wrong.


The other thing is that when we are all looking for this kind of home, which makes us constantly run around--that's what I see when I look at traffic being jammed--everybody's trying to get home, wherever home is. They find themselves going the same direction and screaming at each other for not going fast enough. It's funny. Home is a place of fulfillment. When I go into a supermarket and I watch people pushing those carts just loaded with stuff, and they're still grabbing more and putting it in, I will say, "Well in the absence of Home you gotta really load up this cart and feed yourself while you can."


So there's a need there to look at it from a practical point of view, because then you move into the Mineral and you find out that yes, the reason why this Home does not show up is because there are certain things we need to remember and we cannot remember it. Mineral is about remembering, being able to access pieces of information that we have stored in our bones and without which we cannot plot a proper course that would take us Home. Therefore that Home means that in order to get there the route is not so much through the car dealership and then the freeways and the gas stations. It may be through somewhere else, some kind of different road or roadways. In a situation where there is this general disconnection with home and this feeling of homelessness, where memory is not enough to tell people where to go, as a result there is a disfiguring of Mother Nature. The tendency is to show a certain kind of fear in the face of raw nature, what is called "wild" or anything by that name. What happens is that it becomes all too natural to speak about development whereby you can go cut the trees down, cut everything down and put up some nice little houses, no down payment for six months or something, so that the Homeless could run after it and say, "Well there are a lot of homes over there, let's go get them."



The problem is that what takes the toll is Nature. Nature may have some very useful information for us over there that becomes deleted. How long is it going to take for nature to rewrite what it wrote and which we deleted, which we erased? That's the question. I think that this is what happens when once in a while through this kind of wild destruction the way nature has described itself will bump into some wild virus, we'll call it Ebola virus, and we start running away from it because we disturbed the quiet of Nature. In this case there is a need to understand that somehow these elements either are exploited positively or negatively, depending on where our own consciousness is.


This is why I always like to get people involved and reinventing a relationship with these basic elements. In doing so we come up with those Sacred Spaces where these elements can be embraced in a way that tells us that somehow we carry them inside of us. Ritual is about somehow bringing in, emphasizing or honoring the presence of any one of these elements in us. Further, these elements are connected with some kind of Divine, some kind of Spirit, some kind of power source. When you are talking about Fire, what are the ancestors, dimensional beings? All these in existence that don't have the materiality that fixes them in time and space, and therefore can move from one dimension to another. This is pretty powerful. This is Spirit. This is what we experience when we are less conscious of the magnetic power of this world, and that's what we call a dream.


The same way one would talk about Water. Look at all the beings that live in water. Remember ourselves? Before we came here we were in water. It means that somehow that water has in it a spirit that has the power of making us remember what it means to be reconciled, to be in our natural milieu. The same thing applies to Earth. The Earth symbolizes mother, nurturer, the care-taker. What kind of spirit provides abundance? What kind of spirit gives a sense of nourishment and empowerment? We can find them all over the place.


The same thing for the Mineral. The stones are living entities. They can read signals from far away, as well as from deep down. The Trees too. They are antennas that link this world to other worlds. There are several planets that look just like the earth, and the only species that communicates with one another are the trees because the trees don't have this sense of geographic distance that we human beings have. We think that to go from point A to point B, you have to move your body. Trees don't think this way. This is probably why we will always see them standing in the same place. More often than not, those who wake up to Spirit will feel like trees caught in the modern world. Trees in the traditional context are in the natural milieu. When you go downtown and you look at a tree surrounded by all kind of cement and bricks and so forth, you look at this tree very carefully. The tree is constantly saying, "What the hell am I doing here?" For years the tree has remained the same size. It hasn't grown, because that's the wrong place and the wrong time to be. In a lot of ways a lot of us feel that way somehow. We keep wondering, "What the hell am I doing here?" I think this is what usually comes out when you feel as if somebody has stolen your identity, or someone has shut down something extremely dynamic within you. I think that this is what should motivate us in engaging together in ritual, in the creation of these momentary villages, so that we can try to see how far did we go in the business of going back home by deviating to the rental office or the mortgage bank or something, and get to the Home that we are all entitled to and which we know is over there.


You may look at your Wheel and think that you have a lot of Water, but if you count the water you have unit by unit, there must be three units of Water for every Fire unit you have. For every single digit you have in Fire, you need three digits in Water in order to compensate and be balanced. In other words, Water needs to be three times the Fire.


The important thing that we need to nail down is actually where you belong, where your Essence is in the Wheel--whether you are a Fire person, a Water person, an Earth person, a Nature person or a Mineral person. That's where we're going to start functioning from. Normally what we've known is that the year you chose to be born vibrates the energy that corresponds to your Essence, which means that each year vibrates one of these five energies. For instance, this year 1995 is vibrating Earth energy. Consequently any person who is born this year is coming into this world as an Earth person for the purpose of guiding people Home, nurturing, care-taking, empowering, grounding--whatever you call it, all these things. As long as it makes people feel comfortable. This means therefore if you want to know where you belong, check your year of birth. That's what will tell you.


In 1995, as we notice the number 5 is the one you pay attention to. Next year (1996) six is the one you're going to pay attention to, and then seven, and then eight, and on and on. You look at your year of birth, and you get stuck with the last number. Earth is 0 and 5. Water is 1 and 6. Fire is 2 and 7. Nature is 3 and 8. Mineral is 4 and 9. We're just using the last digit of your year of birth. We are not adding anything together there. Those whose years of birth end with 2 or 7 are the Fire Keepers, the Keepers of the Fire, the link between the village and the Ancestors' world, which means that you should be a good dreamer. If you are not then you need to figure out why. Your role, your task, what you do for the village is going to do with something pertaining to helping people link up to something about ancestors, about Spirit and so forth. Those who respond to 1 and 6 are the Peacemakers and the Reconcilers. For the sake of the village you need to be together and work together as one entity. Those with 0 or 5 are the Care-takers and the Home Providers. You've got to make real estate agents go bankrupt or something and bring us really home, to the real Home. Those with 3 or 8 are witches and wizards. Sobonfu is Nature.


Your task is to help people, the village, or the people within the village who want and need your energy in order for them to be balanced, so that you can give it to them. Of course, before you give your essence you've got to energize it. You've got to make it present in you. You may have noticed that you just discovered that you're one of those elements and you thought you were another one. That's not surprising at all, especially in this world. It's important that in order to be able to give to the village that there be opportunities for each one of these elements to come together as a group and work together. We call these groups Clans--these are different Clans. So we may refer to you as a Water Keeper or a Water Clan or a Water Person. Either way, this is who you are.


We want you to spend some time together first to check in with each other about what that element is to you, how you have experienced it in your life and how is it working or not working at the present. Having done that, build a shrine that is going to be the place that is like your base, where you're going to do things for yourself as well as have people who are going to be coming to you seeking your help. We're not trying here to just write out all kind of ritual and dump it into your hands to do it. We believe strongly that the rituals are in us. We know them. We have them. It's just that we've never actually empowered one another to do it. This is why people are so used to going into all these religious communities. They're taken with a book so that nothing happens unless they've asked you to turn to page 128 and read from paragraph 2 downward, or something like that.


It's all there in the bones. The bones are the correspondence of the stone in the earth. This is where information is stored in us. All we ask of people is to just trust their bones as containers of useful pieces of information so that they can go in there and dig those things out and let it out, let it work. Of course it can get to be very difficult because at that time the mind steps in and says, "Well listen. We've got an issue here. If I let you go to those bones and get that information, what about me?" The mind has been around for so long. You have to figure out some way to trick that. If you can't trick it go find a Nature person, because Nature people are Tricksters. That's why they are witches, and that's why a long time ago the world didn't like them. They burned a few of them down the road.


In the village only the Nature people can speak the truth and nothing would happen to them. Also they are usually referred to as the Fools because they go around noticing you. If it's off, they're going to say, "This is off," and keep on going as if nothing happened. Have you noticed in the Renaissance stories, Shakespeare's stories, that the most sane person in the king's court is called a fool? I wonder why. He's the only one who's got his feet on the ground. So we need a few more of those Fools around to help us be more real. Otherwise we'll shop ourselves to death.


There are colors that come along with this. For Fire it is red. For Water it is blue and black. For Earth it is yellow, Mineral is white, and Nature is green. Keep that in mind when you start to build shrines. Make sure that these colors are in your shrines. Also, if possible just wear that color. Wear the color of your Essence so that your Clan gets emphasized.


In the village that's how we identify the fingers. They don't say that this is your thumb; they say this is your Earth finger. This is your Earth finger because it is the only finger that can touch all the other fingers. This (index/pointer) is your Mineral finger, because that's the one that points to things. What you are pointing at, somehow you wake it up; or when people are screaming at one another and saying "you". It looks like everywhere people have agreed that if you want to finger-point at something you use this finger. That's why we call it a Mineral finger. It's a reminder, a communicator. The longest finger is called the Water finger because it is the tallest. Next to it is the Nature finger. The smallest finger is called the Fire finger. You don't need a lot of fire to do some damage. If you put a little bit of fire on the ground here it will grow, but if you put a little bit of water here it won't grow.


A lot of times for focus or for concentration on a specific element you have to use your Earth finger plus that element. Say you want to focus on water. Take your Earth finger against your Water finger. Has anybody seen The Lion King? There is a monkey there that is funny. The colors are very important, because colors usually are a translation of some kind of vibration that affects our psyche. I don't know quite well how that works, but indeed for some reason it does. That is why I was mentioning there the fact that--and it's trained--the fire department always paints their trucks red. That seems like a denial or something, because inside that red is water. They should have painted it blue because that's what it is. So color here really has an effect.


You can tell that people like certain colors because those colors do something to their own psyche. Someone who always likes to wear red, if you trace that person's life very carefully there's a need for self-affirmation. Be conscious of the color that you wear because it means something that your psyche is up to. This is why this kind of consciousness helps tremendously in taking care of things that are currently challenging you. This is why here this is a culture that has a lot of colors, but they are sometimes used in a very chaotic fashion. So it's good that there be some kind of attention to that.


By the way, the Dagara people have only five colors. Every other color falls into these. This is also why the music is based on five notes. Everything follows the five cycles. Every five years the cycle starts again. There is a certain cyclicality which is based on five. That's the main difference between a modern mentality and an indigenous mentality. The modern mentality is linear. It sees things in terms of progress, so you're going forth somewhere in a linear fashion. The indigenous mentality is cyclical. It keeps going in cycles. This kind of attitude determines how to deal with things. In a linear procession of reality, whenever there is a challenge somewhere people start saying, "Let's put it behind us," as if you're never going to encounter it again. In a cyclical culture, people know a cycle repeats a problem until it is solved. So people know when they have a problem that they have to deal with it. Otherwise they know they're going to bump into it again.


This makes a lot of difference, because everywhere when some major problem occurs, people want to rebuild: "Let's cover it. Let's get it over with in order to go ahead." What I see in this country is that you thought you had left something behind you, and then you saw yourself walking towards that thing. You thought you were going forward. In a lot of ways this has lead me to the strong belief that what we call progress is actually a rush towards the past. It may be fast or slow and we may be calling it by all kinds of different names, but we're rushing--modernity is rushing towards the past, and it's doing that faster because the sense of longing for the past is getting stronger and stronger and stronger. This is only what I can see when they say the speed limit is 55 miles per hour and then they make cars that go 140 miles per hour. What kind of contradiction is that?


Everybody wants to rush out of this moment and get somewhere else, and this is what I like to call the pull. It's like we are entering into the gravity of ancient wisdom, and so we can't pull back. We're going to have to make a machine that has greater horse power so we can get there fast. In this case what is called progress is actually catching up with that which we thought we had forgotten. If this is true it will be best for those of us who wake up to Spirit now to bump into that past than for those who thought that they were going into the future. It's going to be very unpleasant to bump into the past when you had purchased a ticket that says you are going into the future. You're going to curse the guy who sold you the ticket when you get there and you find out that you had been on the wrong train from the beginning.


I think, for me at least, this is how I see any kind of rise of consciousness. Any person who is interested in ancient wisdom, even though he or she doesn't understand it, is feeling some kind of attraction towards it. This is what is going on. The cycle is reaching that place where we hit the ancient again, so that the Wheel begins anew. Those who are awake now, however painful or however disturbing it is to be awake in the midst of tremendous sleepiness--it's amazing the isolating nature of awakeness and the fact that you hear all these things, see all these things, but nobody seems to notice it. That's what I call being awake in the middle of deep sleep. It's hard to wake the other people up because when you try to wake them they say, "You're weird. Go get yourself a life and call me back." What happens is that you turn around and say, "Am I normal or abnormal? Am I supposed to be like them or supposed to be like me? How do I go about ignoring?" There are so many questions you can't even answer.


These are the people that I think have awakened to the increasing magnetism of ancient energy and of ancient wisdom. These people are likely to check in still alive when the collision with this ancient wisdom happens, as opposed to those who are in deep sleep; they will wake up in a stupor wondering where they have arrived. This is what comes to mind when I hear talks from time to time about these changes that are coming up, changes that are going to mean the geography shifts at the same time as consciousness shifts. This is what makes what we do now look more like pioneering jobs that are meant to lead to the reestablishment of what I like to call a Universal Tribal Order, something that brings everybody into the same village or vibrating an energy that is familiar to one another, and not this kind of thing that stresses differences and competition. This is basically why I believe strongly in the practice of ritual and the harmonic vibration with cycles, so that at least we become conscious of that.


Among the Dagara our week is five days long. Each day has a name of the elements in the week: The Waterday, the Fireday, the Earthday, the Mineralday and so on. This is probably why the year is 10 months long. It is the Wheel rotated twice. I don't know why the Greek calendar adds two more months to the year. I think it has a different reason.


Q: Would you just go over the colors again?


A: The Water is a combination of blue and black. That is because we don't make a distinction between blue and black. It's seen as the same, probably because when the cloud forms itself it is black, and when the water comes down it is blue in the sea. That is the basic idea of why we have blue and black as the same color. Earth is yellow. Fire is red. Nature is green. Mineral is white. In the Wheel itself, Water is North, Fire is South, Earth is Center, Mineral is West and Nature is East.


Q: What about the five senses?


A: It is also connected. I have never thought about it. There is also a connection between these five elements and the human anatomy. This is something I have somewhere, but I have never actually looked at it because I've never had the opportunity to delve deep into presenting the Wheel. Before I get any further I see people sleeping. That has always lead me to postpone.


Q: Could you go through the fingers again?


A: The thumb is Earth. The index is Mineral. The middle one is Water. And then this one, the ring finger is Nature. The pinkie, that's Fire.


Q: If your color is a combination of blue and black--which is Water--but subconsciously you find that you tend to prefer the wearing of white for the Mineral or yellow, what is that telling us?


A: That's the response to the call of your psyche to work on the Mineral, to wake your Mineral up, to balance it because your Mineral is kind of dormant. For instance when you are preparing yourself for a conference where you have to give a speech, and you find yourself wearing white. It means that you are trying to bring yourself towards that Mineral place where you can communicate. When you open your mouth it's direct and you don't tumble on your words and say, "I have to think about this before I come back." Also, you need your peace and your focus.


The Five Major African Initiation Rites

Posted on January 20, 2012 at 6:00 PM



There are five major African initiation rites which are fundamental to human growth and development. These rites were originally established by African ancestors while they were living in order to link the individual to the community and the community to the broader and more potent spiritual world. Initiation rites are a natural and necessary part of a community, as are arms and legs natural and necessary extension of the human body. These rites are critical to individual and community development, and it should not to be taken for granted that people automatically grow and develop into responsible, community-oriented adults.



The process of initiation concerns undergoing a fundamental set of rites to start a new phase or beginning in life. It marks the passing from one phase in life to the next more mature phase. Initiation fundamentally has to do with transformation, and has been a central component of traditional African cultures since time immemorial. The details of the rites vary among the different societies, but these rites are nevertheless basic components of the society as they help guide the person from one stage in life into the next stage of one’s life and development, that is, from birth to death and beyond.




The five rites are birth, adulthood, marriage, eldership, and ancestorship. A rite is a fundamental act (or set of rituals) performed according to prescribed social rules and customs. Each of these rites are a key component that are a part of traditional African cultures. Some societies have more elaborate and extensive ceremonies than others, but these five themes are the thread that links families and villages in traditional Africa and provide the necessary structure for individual growth and development. The 5 rites briefly described below represent an integrated initiation system that has given indigenous African cultures the stability and longevity to provide a model of consistency and inter-generational unity. They represent a complete set of devices that prevent the inherent conflicts between various age groups or the systematic ill treatment of women, children, or elders. These problems are commonplace in western cultures, but they are virtually unknown in indigenous African cultures. These African cultures were not “perfect” as all human societies have problems, but they do provide a viable example in the modern world of how to solve social conflicts and contradictions and give individual the societal support to discover and fulfill their life mission and unique contribution.




The Rite of Birth is the first of the major African initiation rites and it involves initiating the infant into the world through a ritual and naming ceremony. Nearly all African cultures hold that the infant has come from the spirit world with important information from that world, and is bringing unique talents and gifts to offer to the community. The infant, in fact, is believed to have been commissioned to come to the world and accomplish a particular mission or project, and often has a great message to deliver.

Therefore, it is the responsibility of the family and community to discover the infant’s unique mission through consultations with a diviner and to have rituals and a birth chart done. This is done to clearly determine the new community member’s mission in order to guide him/her through their life path. The infant’s name is given after the determination of the mission and it is a reflection of the infant’s personality or the life mission itself.




The Rite of Adulthood is the second major initiation rite and it is nowadays the most popular among the set of rites. Most people today assume that “rites of passage” only refers to initiation into adulthood, and they are often not aware that adulthood rites are only one set of rites within a larger system of rites. Adulthood rites are usually done at the onset puberty age (around 12-13 years of age in many cultures) and they are to ensure the shaping of productive, community-oriented responsible adults. There is nothing automatic about youth being productive members of society, nor is there anything particularly difficult about transitioning from a child to an adult. This transition to adulthood is exceedingly difficult in Western societies because there are no systems of adulthood rites to systematically guide and direct the young person through this important stage in his or her life cycle.


In Western culture adulthood is seen as a status achieved at the age of 18 or 21, or simply when the person graduates from high school. Unfortunately, in most cases there is no fundamental guidance or transformation from a child to an adult that is required or expected. This “leave it for chance” approach to adulthood development is the root of most teenage and youth “adult” confusion, chaos, and uncertainty. When the youth reach a certain age, somehow they are expected to magically transformed into an “adult,” eventhough they often receive very little guidance.


On the other hand, African societies systematically initiate boys and girls. They often take the young initiates out of the community, and away from the concerns of everyday life, to teach them all the ways of adulthood: including the rules and taboos of the society; moral instruction and social responsibility; and further clarification of his/her mission or calling in life.




The Rite of Marriage is the third major initiation rite and it represents not only the joining of two families, but also the joining of the two missions of the new couple. In other words, the marriage rites are performed for not only the coming together of male and females to procreate and perpetuate life and the coming together of families, it is also an institution that helps both the husband and wife to best fulfill their mission and objectives in life. Unfortunately, in Western society a vast number of marriages fail as they are often based upon the couple “falling in love” and thereby entering the relationship in an unbalanced state. Individual often “fall in love” quick and “fall out of love” just as quickly, as soon as they recover from the emotional “love at first site” syndrome. African society, on the other hand, does not emphasize individual looks and lust as the primary motivation for marriage, but rather the basic focus is on building families and communities. The focus is on the collective more than the individual. A person is not generally considered an adult until they have married and had children.




The Rite of Eldership is the fourth major initiation rite and it is an important component of the initiation system, because it is the elders who represent tradition and the wisdom of the past. In African culture, there is a fundamental distinction that has to be made between an “elder” and “older” person. An older person has simply lived a longer life than most of people, but it not considered one who deserves high praise and respect. This is because the older person’s life has not been a positive example for the community. An older person could be a thief or drunkard, an evil person, or could be someone who never married and had children, and thus these examples would certainly prevent a person from being considered a respected elder.


An elder, on the other hand, is someone who is given the highest status in African culture because s(he) has lived a life of purpose, and there is nothing more respected than living a purposeful life. The life of an elder is centered in the best tradition of the community, and is someone who has gone through all of the previous three rites, and is a living model for the other groups in the society to emulate. An elder is given the highest status and along with new infants because these two groups represent the closest links to the wisdom of the spirit world.




The last of the five major rites is the Rite of Ancestorship, which concerns passing over into the spirit world. This final initiation rite is an extension of the elder/older distinction because the status that a person has in life is the same status that they bring with them when they pass on. There is virtually no African society that believes that when a person dies this ends all ties and communication with the living. Rather, African philosophy from one culture to another agrees that the spirit of the deceased is still with the living community, and that a distinction must be made in the status of the various spirits, as there are distinctions made in the status of the living.


One of the most important distinctions is the difference between an older person who dies and who is seen as nothing more than a “dead relative,” and a respected elder who passes on and is revered as an honored “ancestor.” The dead relative dies without honor and is someone who is not remembered as a great person or someone who should be followed or emulated. On the other hand, a respected elder who passes on becomes a respected ancestor and is given the highest honor. This group of ancestor wield great power and are often called upon in matters of trouble or uncertainty to help influence a favorable outcome. Thus, ancestors are respected elders who have passed away and who continue to serve as an extension of the family and community.





The above general outline of the African initiation rites is a summary of the complete system of rites that have enormous implications for Black communities in various parts of the diaspora. These communities are struggling to find solid and lasting solutions to long standing problems, resulting from centuries of slavery and colonialism. The solution to these deep-rooted problems is to learn and apply the fundamental philosophies and principles that have created harmonious traditional African societies.


The five major initiation rites can be implemented in any Black community that seeks to find solutions to the problem of a large number of people in the community who lack direction and purpose, and who lack a commitment to build and develop the community. The fact is that in order to produce a society that is focused on the best interest of the community requires a broad-based system that is designed to produce community-oriented responsible adults.



A few practical suggestion include the following:



Rite of Birth: a birth chart should be made for each infant or young person in each family. This is necessary in order to determine their personality, talents, and gifts. If this chart is done before the new baby is given a name, then the name will always remind the person of what their mission is in life whenever his/her name is called. When a person’s name reflects their life’s purpose then this is a powerful tool to help keep the person focused on their life’s work.


Rite of Adulthood: the adulthood rites have to be seen in a larger context. Most programs are well meaning but the problem is often that the mentors of the numerous adulthood “rites of passage” programs have not been initiated themselves. It is obvious that one cannot teach what one has not been taught. The African proverb is that “one who learns, teaches.” The solution to this contradiction is for there to be more focus on programs or organizations for men and women to deal with their own issues of a lack of self-development and lack of a purposeful life, so that they could be better examples for the youth. In other words, the principles that are taught must be applied to the lives of the mentors and adults, otherwise the programs have no credibility or long term effectiveness.


Rite of Marriage: the solution to the epidemic of serial marriages – where many individual marry and divorce multiples times during the course of their life – is to change the approach from off-balanced individuals “falling in love” to the more balanced and stable approach of culturally-centered families forming a mutual bond. The problem for many Black people is that they often adopt anti-social Western ideas and thus see in-laws as their opponents. If more marriages were formed between individuals that have both been through the birth and adulthood rites, then more unions would work because both individuals would have a clear focus in life and would also know how to best support the other partner’s mission. They would be marrying the person and their mission.


Rite of Eldership: every Black community should establish a council of elders to help guide that particular community. There are a number of examples of African societies govern by elders (gerontocracy) because of their collective and accumulative wisdom. This is an important philosophy that should be adopted because a council of elders could be consulted in a variety of matters, ranging from family or marriage disputes, community-wide issues, naming of buildings and community centers, and directing resources to supporting important projects. The guidelines of choosing the council members should be clearly established and members chosen by vote. Without a council of elders most Black communities will remain disorganized and lacking direction and effective leadership.


Rite of Ancestorship: every Black community that establishes a governing council of elders should also chose a group of local and national ancestors whose life represented a purpose focused on helping (in some way) to build and develop the community. This local group of honorable ancestors should be chosen to be remembered because of their great example and contributions, and thus their life should be honored. Too often when ancestors are remembered during community ceremonies a distinction is not made between respected ancestors and dead relatives, or another problem is that many times famous ancestors are remembered but local ancestors are overlooked during these ceremonies. Every healthy community must have local (s)heroes


Sept. 2003

Prof. Manu Ampim


Posted on January 13, 2012 at 9:10 AM




Accompanying chart - Kemetic Chronology



1. Cultural Antiquity and Continuity Starts in Pre-Dynastic Times and Go to 640 A.D.

We must remember this when reading or listening to presentations about Kemet. Even those who eventually conquered Kemet adopted its culture.

2. Older is Better.

The older architecture is superior to the later works. It's as if the art and discipline was forgotten with time.

3. The Entire Orientation of the Ancient Kamites is Southern.

Word for face and South, right and West, left and East, North and back of head are respectively the same.

4. The Origin of the Kamites is Southern.

5. Leadership is Southern.

The main leadership that ruled ancient Kemet always came from the South

6. All Invasions Were Destructive.

No one donated culture to ancient Kemet

7. Arabic Migration Mixes with Nubian People in the Kemetic Valley at and After the Time of Muhammad.

Arabic people come in from Syria and Assyria in large numbers for the first time as the first large population of settlers after Muhammad. And with Islam, you have the first change in the fundamental culture of Kemet.

8. Science Generated Religion.

The ancient Kemetic people got religion by studying aspects of nature. Nature, when viewed systematically, represents "God" anywhere you look.

If you keep seeing the same patterns and rules repeated over and over again in nature, you suddenly realize that there is something bigger that you can't grasp that is behind all this. Therefore, you study yourself into religion.

The religion that the Kemetic people developed through study is the same religion that others borrowed from the ancient Kamites without study.

Science generated religion, it generated philosophy, and it generated general culture (religion was not Sunday).

9. There is No Dualism in Kemetic Culture.

Dualism in interpretation philosophically or culturally is a western phenomenon. (Example, Kierkegaard: It's got to be either this or that). The priest was a scientist. No split between a person searching truth through one means and a person seeking it through another. No split between science and religion, the sacred and the secular.





…because of all the mistakes that have been made in the study of ancient Kemet by most of those who have been funded to do that research in the western world, those in France, those in the United States.

1. Organize Your Data in Chronological Order.

Know where you are in time whenever you are reading a piece of literature.

2. Make Sure You Always Use the Kemetic Names.

Never use the foreign names for Kemetic reality, towns, or people because the names contain as much of the history as the text that is written besides the names. If your change names, you lose the meaning. Keep the names correct, or you will miss data for interpreting the meaning of what you are looking at.

3. Keep your Images Straight.

Compare royal images to royal images, holy images to holy images, common images to common images.

4. Look for Activity in the Peak Periods, not the Intermediate Periods.

5. Separate Your Native People from Your Foreign People.

6. Don't Pick Pieces of Information and Treat Them in Isolation.

Be comprehensive and contextual when you treat this information.

7. Remember the Fact of Cultural Unity.

8. Use multidisciplinary, multinational team.

In whatever investigation that you do, in order to avoid the mistakes of the past, wherever possible, use multidisciplinary, multinational team.



Eleven Ways That Overwhelming Show That the Ancient Kemetic People Were Black African People(Resolved under the supervision UNESCO)


1. Evidence from physical anthropology (looking at pre-dynastic skulls)

2. Evidence from Kemetic human images

3. Testing the skins of mummies for melanin content

4. Skeletal comparisons

5. Blood group

(Blood type of bodies of Kamites almost invariably B, Europeans almost invariably A)

6. The testimonies

All the Greek scholars and Roman scholars whoever described the Kamites who were eyewitnesses were unified in calling them black people. None of them who saw them ever called them white people. You won't find it in their literature.

7. The Kemetic self description, they called themselves black people

In fact, that was the name of their country (The black people).

8. Divine epithets

All of their gods were black.

9. Evidence from the Bible.

They are children of Ham; remember? Ham's children founded Kemet (Mizraim), Punt (Somaliland), Kush (Ethiopia), and Canaan (Palestine), and (Nimrod, Kush's son, Ham's grandson) founded Babylon.

10. Cultural Unity with the rest of Africa.

11. Linguistic unity with more southern and western Africa


Referenced Texts


Great African Thinkers, Cheikh Anta Diop's life work summarizing; Journal of African Civilizations (vol. 8, No. 1); Van Sertima, Ivan and Larry Obadele Williams, eds. New Brunswick: Transaction Press, 1986.

To purchase, write to: Ivan Van Sertima, Editor; Jorunal of African Civilizations; Beck Hall, Rutgers University; New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903; USA

General History of Africa, vol. 2, UNESCO

The Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of Meroitic Script, UNESCO (Ghent: Unesco, 1978)

{Symposium On The Peopling Of Ancient Egypt And The Deciphering Of Meroitic Script, (1974: Cairo). The Peopling Of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of Meroitic Script: Proceedings of the Symposium Held in Cairo from 28 January to 3 February 1974. Paris: UNESCO, 1978. Series: The General History Of Africa: Studies and Documents; Vol. 1.

Note: The entire, unabridged, Eight-Volume set of The General History of Africa Series may be purchased individually or as a set from: http://www.ucpress.edu/books/UNESCO.ser.html

Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings, Lichtheim, Miriam, University of California Press (3 volumes), 1973-1980

May be purchased from: http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/8548.html


Article has been extracted from  http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/kemet.html

7 Universal Laws of Tehuti

Posted on January 11, 2012 at 12:00 AM

7 Universal Laws of Tehuti


"THE ALL is MIND; The Universe is Mental." — The Kybalion.

This Principle embodies the truth that "All is Mind." It explains that THE ALL (which is the Substantial Reality underlying all the outward manifestations and appearances which we know under the terms of "The Material Universe"; the "Phenomena of Life"; "Matter"; "Energy"; and, in short, all that is apparent to our material senses) is SPIRIT, which in itself is UNKNOWABLE and UNDEFINABLE, but which may be considered and thought of as AN UNIVERSAL, INFINITE, LIVING MIND.



"As above, so below; as below so above." — The Kybalion.

This Principle embodies the truth that there is always a Correspondence between the laws and phenomena of the various planes of Being and Life. The old Hermetic axiom ran in these words: "As above, so below; as below, so above." And the grasping of this Principle gives one the means of solving many a dark paradox, and hidden secret of Nature. There are planes beyond our knowing, but when we apply the Principle of Correspondence to them we are able to understand much that would otherwise be unknowable to us. This Principle is of universal application and manifestation, on the various planes of the material, mental, and spiritual universe — it is an Universal Law.


"Nothing rests; everything moves; everything vibrates." — The Kybalion.

This Principle embodies the truth that "everything is in motion"; "everything vibrates"; "nothing is at rest"; facts which Modern Science endorses, and which each new scientific discovery tends to verify. And yet this Hermetic Principle was enunciated thousands of years ago, by the Masters of Ancient Egypt. This Principle explains that the differences between different manifestations of Matter, Energy, Mind, and even Spirit, result largely from varying rates of Vibration. From THE ALL, which is Pure Spirit, down to the grossest form of Matter, all is in vibration — the higher the vibration, the higher the position in the scale.



"Everything is Dual; everything has poles; everything has its pair of opposites; like and unlike are the same; opposites are identical in nature, but different in degree; extremes meet; all truths are but half-truths; all paradoxes may be reconciled." — The Kybalion.

This Principle embodies the truth that "everything is dual"; "everything has two poles"; "everything has its pair of opposites," all of which were old Hermetic axioms. It explains the old paradoxes, that have perplexed so many, which have been stated as follows: "Thesis and anti-thesis are identical in nature, but different in degree"; "opposites are the same, differing only in degree"; "the pairs of opposites may be reconciled"; "extremes meet"; "everything is and isn't, at the same time"; "all truths are but half-truths"; "every truth is half-false"; "there are two sides to everything," etc., etc., etc. It explains that in everything there are two poles, or opposite aspects, and that "opposites" are really only the two extremes of the same thing, with many varying degrees between them.



"Everything flows, out and in; everything has its tides; all things rise and fall; the pendulum-swing manifests in everything; the measure of the swing to the right is the measure of the swing to the left; rhythm compensates." — The Kybalion.

This Principle embodies the truth that in everything there is manifested a measured motion, to and fro; a flow and inflow; a swing backward and forward; a pendulum-like movement; a tide-like ebb and flow; a high-tide and low-tide; between the two poles which exist in accordance with the Principle of Polarity described a moment ago. There is always an action and a reaction; an advance and a retreat a rising and a sinking. This is in the affairs of the Universe, suns, worlds, men, animals, mind, energy, and matter. This law is manifest in the creation and destruction of worlds; in the rise and fall of nations; in the life of all things; and finally in the mental states of Man (and it is with this latter that the Hermetists find the understanding of the Principle most important)



"Every Cause has its Effect; every Effect has its Cause; everything happens according to Law; Chance is but a name for Law not recognized; there are many planes of causation, but nothing escapes the Law." — The Kybalion.

This Principle embodies the fact that there is a Cause for every Effect; an Effect from every Cause. It explains that: "Everything Happens according to Law"; that nothing ever "merely happens"; that there is no such thing as Chance; that while there are various planes of Cause and Effect, the higher dominating the lower planes, still nothing ever entirely escapes the Law.



"Gender is in everything; everything has its Masculine and Feminine Principles Gender; manifests on all planes." — The Kybalion.

This Principle embodies the truth that there is GENDER manifested in everything — the Masculine and Feminine Principles ever at work. This is true not only of the Physical Plane, but of the Mental and even the Spiritual Planes. On the Physical Plane, the Principle manifests as SEX, on the higher planes it takes higher forms, but the Principle is ever the same. No creation, physical, mental or spiritual, is possible without this Principle. An understanding of its laws will throw light on many a subject that has perplexed the minds of men. The Principle of Gender works ever in the direction of generation, regeneration, and creation. Everything, and every person, contains the two Elements or Principles, or this great Principle, within it, him or her.



This information was extracted from “The Kybalion" by Three Initiates. Our brother Dr.Wayne Chandler has also written a book about the The Laws of Tehuti(Hermetic Law) called "Ancient Future" .


Aboriginal Australians descend from the first humans to leave Africa, DNA sequence reveals

Posted on December 24, 2011 at 9:50 PM


Adapted from a news release issued by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC).

Thursday 22 September 2011

An international team of researchers, including a UK collaboration led by BBSRC- and MRC-funded researchers at Imperial College London, with colleagues at University College London, and University of Cambridge has for the first time sequenced the genome of a man who was an Aboriginal Australian. They have shown that modern day Aboriginal Australians are the direct descendents of the first people who arrived on the continent some 50,000 years ago and that those ancestors left Africa earlier than their European and Asian counterparts. The work is published this evening (22 September 2011) in the journal Science.

Although there is good archaeological evidence that shows humans in Australia around 50,000 years ago, this genome study re-writes the story of their journey there. The study provides good evidence that Aboriginal Australians are descendents of the earliest modern explorers, leaving Africa around 24,000 years before their Asian and European counterparts. This is contrary to the previous and most widely accepted theory that all modern humans derive from a single out-of-Africa migration wave into Europe, Asia, and Australia.

Professor Eske Willerslev from the University of Copenhagen, who led the study, said: "While the ancestors of Europeans and Asians were sitting somewhere in Africa or the Middle East, yet to explore their world further, the ancestors of Aboriginal Australians spread rapidly; the first modern humans traversing unknown territory in Asia and finally crossing the sea into Australia. It was a truly amazing journey that must have demanded exceptional survival skills and bravery."

Dr Francois Balloux, from the MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling at Imperial College London, who led the UK team, said: "Thanks to tremendous progress in sequencing technologies it is much easier to compare genomes of individual people, including those from geographically distinct populations. And by doing this you can learn a lot about when and via what route they came to be where they are today. In this way, the science of genomics makes a unique contribution to our understanding of when and how humans colonised the world."

The study derived from a lock of hair donated to a British anthropologist by an Aboriginal man from the Goldfields region of Western Australia in the early 20th century. One hundred years later, researchers have isolated DNA from this same hair, using it to explore the genetics of the first Australians and to provide insights into how humans first dispersed across the globe.

By sequencing the genome, which was shown to have no genetic input from modern European Australians, the researchers demonstrated that Aboriginal Australians descend directly from an early human expansion into Asia that took place some 70,000 years ago, at least 24,000 years before the population movements that gave rise to present-day Europeans and Asians.

This research is presented with the full endorsement of the Goldfields Land and Sea Council, the organization that represents the Aboriginal traditional owners for the region.

The research was carried out by an international consortium led by the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, with colleagues in Australia, Canada, China, Estonia, France, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, UK and USA.


Posted on August 9, 2011 at 9:35 PM











 The symbolic representation of Maát as a human figure with outreached hands and wings, is the Netcher of the weighing of the soul in ancient Kemet. The heart of the deceased was believed to be the seat of the soul and it was weighed on the scale of the Netcher Maát, against a feather, which represented the principles of truth and righteousness (the seven cardinal virtues). This symbolic weighing of the heart against the feather of truth (Maát) was performed to established the righteousness of the deceased. The scale of Maát was balanced after the recitation of the "42 Declarations of Innocence or Admonitions of Maát"



1. I have not done iniquity.

2. I have not robbed with violence.

3. I have not stolen.

4. I have done no murder; I have done no harm.

5. I have not defrauded offerings.

6. I have not diminished obligations.

7. I have not plundered the neteru.

8. I have not spoken lies.

9. I have not uttered evil words.

10. I have not caused pain.

11. I have not committed fornication.

12. I have not caused shedding of tears.

13. I have not dealt deceitfully.

14. I have not transgressed.

15. I have not acted guilefully.

16. I have not laid waste the ploughed land.

17. I have not been an eavesdropper.

18. I have not set my lips in motion (against any man).

19. I have not been angry and wrathful except for a just cause.

20. I have not defiled the wife of any man.

21. I have not been a man of anger.

22. I have not polluted myself.

23. I have not caused terror.

24. I have not burned with rage.

25. I have not stopped my ears against the words of Right and Truth. (Ma-at)

26. I have not worked grief.

27. I have not acted with insolence.

28. I have not stirred up strife.

29. I have not judged hastily.

30. I have not sought for distinctions.

31. I have not multiplied words exceedingly.

32. I have not done neither harm nor ill.

33. I have not cursed the King. (i.e. violation of laws)

34. I have not fouled the water.

35. I have not spoken scornfully.

36. I have never cursed the neteru.

37. I have not stolen.

38. I have not defrauded the offerings of the Neteru.

39. I have not plundered the offerings of the blessed dead.

40. I have not filched the food of the infant.

41. I have not sinned against the neter of my native town.

42. I have not slaughtered with evil intent the cattle of the Neter.



The Neophyte or students ultimate aim in Kemet was for a person to become "One with God" or to "become like God." The path to the development of godlike qualities was through the development of virtue, but virtue could only be achieved through special study and effort. According to George G. M. James in his timeless work Stolen Legacy writes: The following of the 10 virtues were sought by the Neophyte in ancient Kemet. In the final analysis, the ancient Kemites sought Maát or to be more correct they sought to become one with Maát, the cosmic order.



(1). Control of thoughts

(2). Control of actions

(3). Devotion of purpose

(4). Have faith in the ability of [your] [teacher] to teach [you] the truth.

(5). Have faith in [yourself] to assimilate the truth

(6). Have faith in [themselves] to wield the truth

(7). Be free from resentment under the experience of persecution.

(8). Be free from resentment under the experience of wrong.

(9). Cultivate the ability to distinguish between right and wrong and

(10). Cultivate the ability to distinguish between the real and the unreal


Excerpts from http://www.maatinus.com/Nguzo%20Saba/maatprn.htm